While our own world is generally accepted as having somewhere in the vacinity of 194-196 independent countries (with some estimates as low as 189), the world of the Vancil 1418 universe has 20 - about one tenth of that. They are: The United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Spain, Portugal, the Confederation of the Rhine, the Scandinavian Union, Italia [Italy], Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, the Byzantine Empire, the Federation of African Republics, the People's Republic of South Africa, the Federation of North America, the United States of Central America, the Bolivarian Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Empire of India, the Empire of Japan and Australia.
Note that the status of the Arabian Peninsula is disputed, with the Byzantine Empire claiming sovereignty and most of the nations of the world - save the Soviet Union and its allies - recognizing that claim. However, the practical control of Byzantium over these states is variable and scant.
The following is a list of the most important countries, which [hopefully] will eventually expand to include all of them.